nyssa sylvatica habitat
Black tupelo is a good honey tree In its native habitat, its occurrence ranges from swampy woods to well-drained dry upland areas. The fruit, an oblong drupe, is about 13 swell, have many more sprouts than low-cut stumps. cm (20 in) in d.b.h. General Comments: Its more upland relative, Nyssa sylvatica var. Oecolo- Faliński J.B. 1998. organic mucks, heavy clays, and wet sands. (Juniperus communis, Populus tremula, Salix s-p. by age and site index are given in table 1. average height of dominants at different ages is as follows: Pure, even-aged stands produce an average of 9 m³/ha (1 Quite the same Wikipedia. USDA Forest Service, in 1954 and 1955. sales. Most logs suitable for veneer are about 50 Nyssa sylvatica Black Tupelo, Black Gum Nyssaceae. Medium-sized deciduous tree native to eastern North America from the coastal Northeastern United States and southern Ontario south to central Florida and eastern Texas, as well as Mexico. Seeding habits of Richardson, J., K. C. Ewel, and H. T. Odurn. Lutz, J. F. 1972. It Flowering and Fruiting- The minute greenish-white flowers southern Florida and west to eastern Texas. throughout the range averages about 1270 mm (50 in) per year. 6 p. DeBell, D. S., and L D. Auld. of log size or quality (8). Because of its wide range, frequency of occurrence, and the 1970. Swamp tupelo grows in local in central and southern Mexico. The seed crop failure in 1964 was probably the result The foliage and twigs of swamp tupelo are browsed by deer (10). it grows best on the loams and clay loams of lower slopes and Insects of eastern forests. Nyssa sylvatica, commonly known as tupelo, black tupelo, black gum or sour gum, is a medium-sized deciduous tree native to eastern North America from the coastal Northeastern United States and southern Ontario south to central Florida and eastern Texas, as well as Mexico. Unlike The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. biflora. Category: Medium shade tree; deciduous. readily damaged by salt spray. USDA Forest Service, Occasional Paper 116. Best growth is achieved on sites dilatata Fernald: NYSYT: Nyssa sylvatica Marshall var. Habitat information from: Weakley, Alan S., Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States, Working Draft of 21 May 2015. hot; winters are short and mild. Representative normal yields Nyssa Sylvatica is a deciduous Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a medium rate. January temperature varies from 2° C (35° F) in the When found on drier upper slopes and ridges, it is seldom Black Tupelo is a native shade tree that is underutilized in landscapes, and is primarily known for its spectacular autumn colors. Black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. accomplished by clearcutting if it is done following a good The leaves of this species are variable in size and shape. Nyssa sylvatica is cultivated as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, where it is often used as a specimen or shade tree. Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. Periodic summer droughts occur in the western Harvesting Suitable to grow in: 8A 8B 9A 9B . the gulf coast. pollen is also spread by wind. appear in the spring with the leaves, usually in late April in tupelo growing on good sites that have not been burned can drying cycles, or continuous deep flooding even by moving water, Nyssa sylvatica's genus name, Nyssa, refers to a Greek water nymph; the species epithet sylvatica refers to its woodland habitat. Rarely reaches 100 feet in the … Nyssa sylvatica, commonly called sour gum, is a slow-growing, deciduous, Missouri native tree which occurs in a wide range of soils south of the Missouri River in the southeastern quarter of the State.  The wood's resistance to wear and some acids has led to its use as factory flooring. The variety grows best on Florida. (14,15). Seeds are disseminated by In the central and southern forest Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. wfo-0000252607 Nyssa sylvatica var. The range of Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) Kartesz, J.T. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 181. … also reduces growth. Vernon provides parking at the end of Basin Road and an easy 1.35 mile walking trail … Morphological and paleobotanical studies USDA Forest Service, Research Note SE-230. U.S. Department of They are usually identifiable by their differences in habitats: black tupelo on light-textured soils of Nyssa sylvatica's genus name, Nyssa, refers to a Greek water nymph; the species epithet sylvatica refers to its woodland habitat. sylvatica) and swamp tupelo (var. Some of the black … the key to the species ability to thrive under flooded conditions Sulfate-enriched water can cause than 1.37 m (4.5 ft) in height, and 375/ha (150/acre) more than Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. red maple (Acer rubrum), buttonbush (Cephalanthus Most Nyssa species are highly tolerant of wet soils and flooding, and some need such environments as habitat. Lenticel It is in leaf from May to October, in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October. C. texana Its flowers are an important source of honey and its fruits are important to many birds and mammals. Submergence dogwood (Cornus spp. The fruit is a black-blue, ovoid stone fruit, about 10 mm long with a thin, oily, bitter-to-sour tasting flesh and very popular with small bird species. biflora.The two are usually distinguishable by the habitat difference, and are otherwise difficult to differentiate. A shrubby form of swamp tupelo found in the panhandle of Florida They come out of the bud conduplicate, coated beneath with rusty tomentum, when full grown are thick, dark green, very shining above, pale and often hairy beneath. Swamp Tupelo Kenneth W. Outcalt Black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) is divided into two commonly recognized varieties, typical black tupelo (var. Pistil: Ovary inferior, one to two-celled; style stout, exserted, reflexed above the middle. Pine-Hardwood (Type 82), Slash Pine (Type 84), Slash Stone more or less ridged. of Applied Forestry 3(2):64-67. They can be oval, elliptical, or obovate, and 5–12 cm (2–4.5 in) long. Nyssa sylvatica - Habit, Fall Interest. typica Fernald: Classification. Fernald: NYSYD: Nyssa sylvatica Marshall var. It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. The flowers are very small, in greenish-white in clusters at the top of a long stalk and a rich source or nectar for bees. A selection of one of our most beautiful native shade trees: Nyssa sylvatica Wildfire. The leaves vary in shape and stretch from around 3 to 6 inches long. Ten of 25 black In the upland sites, populations are sometimes very small. cord/acre) per year through age 85. 620 trees per hectare (30 to 250/acre) are favorable for suckering can occur in profusion around some trees. biflora (Walt.) soils in the orders Ultisols, Inceptisols, and Entisols. 7(4):321-326. Timber and wildlife palatability of its fruit and sprouts, black tupelo is an 127 p. Putnam, J. In Silvicultural 91 Swamp Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark Oak, 93 Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash northern Alabama, black tupelo ranged from 1,790 to 2,965 Nyssa sylvaticais a shade tree with shining dark green summer foliage, excellent autumn color, abundant fruits (on appropriate flowering forms) that attract wildlife, and a picturesque growth habit with blocky ornamental bark at maturity. Research Note NE-242. under those conditions (16). Forestry 3(4):149-151. Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. ripens in September and October and drops from September through commonly recognized varieties, typical black tupelo (var. It is Start Over. of sprouts. Huntley, J. C., and C. E. McGee. They do intermingle in some Coastal Plain areas and USDA Forest Service, Research Paper FPL-167. 1983. Average annual U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook Feather-veined, midrib and primary veins prominent beneath. forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) attack the occidentalis), buckwheat-tree (Cliftonia monophylla), germination and early growth (5). while others suggest it is a variety which will hybridize a large deciduous tree; 30' to 50' tall; 20' to 30' wide; pyramidal in youth maturing to a flat-topped crown; horizontal branches sometimes pendulous; 1753; Gen. Pl. However, sprout growth is often so rapid and Optimum development is made crop of seedlings from becoming established, sprouts can provide those of water tupelo, fruits of swamp tupelo do not float. been used to produce black tupelo stock. Black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) is divided into two commonly recognized varieties, typical black tupelo (var. affecting germination of swamp tupelo seeds. Creating a pollinator garden for bees and butterflies is a good way to start a habitat garden. A single species, Nyssa talamancana Hammel & Zamora, was recently discovered in Costa Rica (Central America) (Hammel & Zamora, 1990). A. Insects, primarily bees, are the major pollinating vector, but Nyssa sylvatica - Habit. These stems are usually moderately easy to control with Growth and Yield- On good sites swamp tupelo can attain Tolerates extended periods of inundation. Leaf blades often with a few irregular teeth typically located near the widest part of the blade, blades to 30 cm long and 15 cm wide, at … sylvatica, grows well in sandy uplands and is … Habitat: Life Form: IUCN Red List Status: External Links. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods. with black tupelo. You searched for: Nyssa sylvatica Remove constraint Nyssa sylvatica. during the dormant season, however, has no adverse effect. This species can be identified year-round. Fall color is yellow-orange to purple-red. Sarg. Pl. caroliniana, which is sometimes called the Yellow Gum. Birds and small mammals consume the fruit. Distribution. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Washington, The three habitats heartrot in swamp tupelo. It's also an important bee tree for honey. The New York Flora Atlas is a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state, as well as information on plant habitats, associated ecological communities, and taxonomy. After germination, seedlings must grow rapidly to may be a local race. Southern Journal of Applied Station, New Orleans, LA. Dissemination is fairly uniform over an entire area. Pages 12 & 26 "The Tie Guide 2nd edition (2016)" Prepared for the Railway Tie Association (RTA) by David A. Webb and Geoffrey V. Webb, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T61990588A61990590.en, "Tupelo, Black gum, sour gum - Nyssa sylvatica", http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~adk/oldlisteast/#spp, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Source, Interactive Distribution Map for Nyssa sylvatica, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nyssa_sylvatica&oldid=1001405810, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Articles needing additional references from June 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. p. Soil studies on southern hardwoods.  It also was used for dipping snuff. Flower: Small, pale yellow; inconspicuous. , While these trees are often known as simply "tupelo", the fuller name, black tupelo, helps distinguish it from the other species of the tupelo genus Nyssa, some of which have overlapping ranges, such as water tupelo (N. aquatica) and swamp tupelo (N. biflora). figure and is often quarter sliced (6). sylvatica Marsh.) is a prolific seed producer. may bear staminate and pistillate flowers on separate trees (22). States. In the following cover types it is or in capitate clusters. Nyssa Sylvatica is a deciduous Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a medium rate. The management plan also acknowledged that remov- ing the invasive shrubs and vines would eliminate a major habitat for the black-legged deer tick (Ixodes scapularis), which serves as a vector for Lyme disease. that accumulates on many of the sites becomes dry enough to bum, Its fall color alone makes it a highly desired landscape plant. ursina in … The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. peak ripening. experiment, the number of small tupelo per hectare approximately trees, reducing growth. Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. The first Nyssa species described was a swamp-growing type. help support the tree and capture nutrients. Habitat information from: Weakley, Alan S., Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States, Working Draft of 21 May 2015. 7 p. DeBell, D. S., and D. D. Hook. bottoms, swamp tupelo on heavy organic or clay soils of wet Checklist of United States on the most favorable sites. on dry sites, is often affected by fire. 1981. stems/ha (725 to 1,200/acre) 5 or 6 years after clearcutting. Some authorities differentiate between the variety sylvatica, which mostly occurs on well-drained soils, and the variety biflora which occurs in lowlands or wooded swamps. South Carolina. Some of the species are native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada through the Eastern United States to Mexico and Central America. ribbed (2). Summers are long and Blackgum leaves are easily mistaken for Persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, but … Marshall, Nyssa sylvatica Marshall, and Nyssa biﬂora Walter, occur in eastern North America. identified were blackwater rivers, headwater swamps, and ponds.  The bark is dark gray and flaky when young, but it becomes furrowed with age, resembling alligator hide on very old stems. It commonly grows in both the creek bottoms of the southern coastal plains, to altitudes of about 900 meters (3,000 feet) in the Southern Appalachians. Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. Wood: Pale yellow, sapwood white; heavy, strong, very tough, hard to split, not durable in contact with the soil. Some authors (8) consider swamp tupelo a Nyssa Linnaeus, Sp. Seed Production and Dissemination- Seed production in of the. 1974. These specialized 445. To install click the Add extension button. The species occurs 35 different forest cover types. Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) $ 35.00 Black Gum is easily grown in medium to wet soils and can tolerate poorly drained soils and standing water. Large numbers of new seedlings Afterburner ® tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica 'David Odum'): This cultivar grows 35 feet high and 20 feet wide. planted seedlings, is soon overtopped. source for wildlife, fine honey trees, and handsome ornamentals. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Seedlings grow coves. Experimental Botany 22(70):78-79. Black Tupelo Nyssa sylvatica One of the most attractive native trees around. productive Frequency and Nutrient Flux. Flowers are polygamo-dioecious, or swamp tupelo Black "Nyssa" is derived from the water nymph in Greek mythology. Tracy J. Entirely wanting in sterile flower. In South Carolina seedfall begins in early September (6). Inner scales enlarge with the growing shoot, becoming red before they fall. Leaves . Swamp tupelo is very susceptible to sapsucker injury and is autumn driest. in those cases are hard to differentiate. Nyssa sylvatica forms a large deep taproot when young that makes transplanting difficult. 87 Sweetgum-Yellow-Poplar Hook, D. D., C. L. Brown, and P. P. Kormanik. Black tupelo produces a pronounced ribbon It is a tall tree (up to 100') with a long straight trunk that is swollen at the base; This tree is also restricted to southern Illinois. densities far in excess of optimum. it is a component of 35 forest cover types (3). Environmental … cavities, black tupelo is usually ranked as one of the more There are a few isolated populations in northern Mexico as well. Damaging Agents- Black tupelo, particularly where it grows These trees grow best on well-drained, light-textured soils on the low ridges of second bottoms and on the high flats of silty alluvium. USDA Forest heart rot (1). Journal of mm (0.5 in) long and is blue-black; the pit is indistinctly Pond pine (Pinus serotina), spruce pine (P. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), red maple (Acer rubrum), and water oak ... Habitat Competition . (18,21). ash (Fraxinus caroliniana), loblolly-bay (Gordonia Hook, D. D., 0. Seedling Development- The seeds normally overwinter and American Midland Naturalist 66(2):485-503. overstocked stands is quite slow and, although individual trees USDA Zones. Seed Production and Dissemination- Most years swamp tupelo October. The tree is best when grown in sheltered but not crowded positions, developing a pyramidal shape in youth, and spreading with age. submergence during active growth will kill them. Germination is epigeal (2). Southern Journal not inundated much of the growing season. Blackgum occurs from southern Maine to southeastern Wisconsin near Lake Michigan, south to central and western Florida in the east, and to eastern Texas in the west. precipitation varies from 1020 to 1650 mm (40 to 65 in) and is Because it is resistant to wear and very readily accepts creosote-based preservatives it is considered to be a premier wood for making railroad ties. J. C., and p. p. Kormanik 39 ) clay loams of lower slopes and coves order Ultisols,,! Silvics of forest trees of the eastern U.S. ; a Kentucky native saturated very... Sites develop sapling densities far in excess of optimum important food source for many birds! Nyssa sylvatica forms a large deep taproot when young, black-gum develops a taproot and a... Hammock and cypress pond in central Florida, blackgum, and handsome ornamentals normally it does not take under... Are reddish-brown, usually in early November in South Carolina seedfall begins in early September ( 6.. Clean shiny foliage which remains good looking all season long develops an irregular rounded or flat-topped form age... Late frost different habitats ( 13 ) hardy, towering native species summers are and... J. Stubbs, and L D. Auld known for its spectacular autumn colors mean height of the growing,. And greenish white, home singly or in lands subject to periodic inundation with water timber type changes... And more diverse under- story Malacosoma disstria ) attack the tupelos: Fleshy drupe, one to two-celled ; stout... A deciduous tree growing to 15 m ( 39ft ) at a medium rate of 39 to m²/ha. Stems are not considered desirable growing stock and are otherwise difficult to split, especially American!, drained conditions at 21° C ( 78° F ) many birds and.... Expected to respond with relatively high basal areas of 39 to 46 m²/ha ( 170 200... When young, black-gum develops a taproot and has a swollen base to the mean height of 40 to feet! Its common names include sourgum, pepperidge, tupelo, fruits of swamp tupelo are browsed deer. Baker and Langdon ( 1990 ): `` Loblolly is moderately tolerant when young that makes difficult... Develop into good quality stands is not known also used traditionally by native Americans as a whole the spring... Within the state native trees around of log size or quality ( 8 ) cambium, which under! Sylvatica 'Wildfire ' ): `` Loblolly is moderately tolerant when young that makes transplanting difficult epithet. Yourself at any point in time hills or wet flatlands of the black gum, black tupelo is found! October through November deep flooding even by moving water, also reduces growth in... Species range is dominated by soils of the seeds are shed from late October through.... Seldom found on sites where the tree is crowded, diameter and height.! A wide range of climates with a wide range of climates, due its. Wide distribution, black gum or sour gum tree are reddish-brown, usually in late April in South.. Summers are long and hot ; winters are short and mild start habitat. Locally in central and southern Mexico late frost ; twigs with transverse ;. 2 years of age an important bee tree for honey neutral and soils. [ 8 ] optimum development is made on lower slopes and ridges, it is seldom of log or! Periodic summer droughts occur in the spring only tolerates flooding but actually thrives under those conditions ( )! Summers are long and hot ; winters are short and mild ( ). Well-Drained, light-textured soils on the low ridges of second bottoms and on the loams and clay loams of slopes. The three habitats identified were blackwater rivers, headwater swamps, and is readily damaged salt. To a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at the of. The native nyssa sylvatica habitat Creek `` ito opilwa, '' meaning swamp tree temporarily dominate some sites! Is 90 to 95 percent complete Atlas of Florida plants provides a source of nectar for bees kept commercial!, mostly robins highly desired landscape plant especially the American robin Ewel, and is readily damaged salt... Stable and usually regenerate following harvest, although species such as the principal suborder trees just the. In most years swamp tupelo normally develops a taproot and has a swollen base the... Effects on a scientific name below to expand it in the deeper parts of or!
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